Section 69 of Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita (BNS)

Ayushi Rajput February 15 2024 7:38 PM

Section 69 Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita (BNS) holds significant relevance, especially in cases related to promises to marry. This provision, while aimed at protecting individuals from deceitful commitments, has stirred debates and concerns due to its implications and potential dangers.

Understanding Section 69

Section 69 of BNS deals with promises to marry and the legal consequences arising from the non-fulfillment of such promises. The primary objective is to address situations where individuals make explicit or implicit commitments to marry but later renege on those promises. This provision is intended to safeguard individuals from emotional distress and betrayal.

Key Elements of Section 69

  1. Promise to Marry: The core of Section 69 revolves around promises made with the intention of marriage. These promises can be explicit or implied, creating a legal obligation between the parties involved. The core idea is to provide legal recourse for individuals who face betrayal or non-fulfillment of matrimonial promises.

  2. Legal Consequences: Non-compliance with the promise to marry, if proven, can lead to legal consequences for the person reneging on the commitment. This may include compensation for emotional distress suffered by the aggrieved party or other penalties as determined by the court.

The Fourfold Approach:

Section 69 in Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita (BNS) dives into different situations, dealing with promises, jobs, and hidden identities. Let's break down this legal puzzle, making it easier to grasp.

  1. False Marriage Promises:
    When someone says they'll marry you, but it's just talk without real intent, Section 69 steps in. This is to tackle situations where promises of marriage turn out to be empty, causing harm to those involved.
    Example: If someone falsely promises marriage just to have a relationship, Section 69 could be applied.

  2. Job and Promotion Tricks:
    Section 69 also covers job and promotion lies. If someone tricks you into a relationship with false job or promotion promises, the law protects against this kind of deceit.
    Example: If someone uses job promises to get into a relationship, and it's all a trick, Section 69 can be used.

  3. Identity Secrets:
    The law takes identity seriously, especially in marriages. Section 69 deals with situations where someone hides important things, like religion, during marriage. It aims to prevent deceit that could harm the foundation of marriages.
    Example: If someone conceals their religion during marriage, and it comes out later, Section 69 may be applied.

  4. Understanding the Law:

    To make sense of Section 69, you need to get the details right. The law wants a careful look at each situation, distinguishing between consensual relationships and instances involving lies or identity concealment.
    Legal Tip: Section 69 needs careful consideration. It aims to protect consensual acts while dealing with cases where promises, deceit, or identity issues come up.

In simpler terms, Section 69 addresses tricky situations involving promises, professions, and hidden truths. It's like a legal guidebook to keep things fair and square in relationships and marriages.

The Dangers of Section 69

While Section 69 serves a purpose, there are inherent dangers and challenges associated with its application:

  1. Potential for Misuse: One of the primary concerns is the potential for misuse of Section 69. False allegations of promises to marry, driven by personal vendettas or revenge, can lead to unwarranted legal actions and harm the reputation of innocent individuals 

  2. Emotional Distress and Stigma: Accusations made under Section 69 can cause significant emotional distress to the accused. Moreover, the societal stigma associated with such cases can lead to reputational damage and psychological trauma for both parties involved.

  3. Gender Bias: Critics argue that Section 69 may be susceptible to gender bias, impacting one gender more significantly than the other. Interpretations and applications of this provision within the legal system could inadvertently perpetuate stereotypes and gender-based inequities.

  4. Need for Clarity and Reform: Ambiguities in the language and interpretation of Section 69 call for a thorough review and potential reform. Clear definitions and guidelines could help prevent misuse and ensure fair treatment in legal proceedings.

False Accusations: A Big Concern

False accusations, especially by women, have become a critical issue, and Section 69 heightens these fears. Numerous cases highlight women trapping men in fabricated charges. It's imperative to address this as a serious concern to protect the wrongly accused.

Instances of women exploiting the legal system to harm men through false cases are rampant. The gravity of such false claims cannot be understated, demanding stringent measures to safeguard individuals from malicious intent.

There should be establishment of stringent checks and balances within Section 69 to prevent malicious misuse while safeguarding genuine victims.

Example Scenario: A woman accuses a man of promising marriage, engaging in a consensual relationship, and then retracts the allegations post-breakup, leading to a tarnished reputation for the accused.

Dating Apps: Love Struck or Legal Strife?

Dating apps, hailed for fostering connections, come with a dark side. Officers recount cases where men, after breaking off relationships or legal actions, face unfounded allegations, especially in cases involving dating apps. The advent of modern romance has created a dichotomy where love can lead to legal entanglements.

The dangers within dating apps extend beyond initial encounters. Individuals narrate incidents where accusations persist even after legal actions are dropped, revealing the intricate legal web woven within modern relationships.

Example Scenario: An individual faces accusations of harassment or molestation after a consensual relationship initiated through a dating app turns sour, prompting a legal battle with no evidence to substantiate the claims.

Protests Against Section 69

A growing wave of discontent surrounds Section 69, with protesters citing its gender bias, unconstitutional nature, and promotion of legal terrorism. The movement aims to highlight the unjust penalization of consensual acts, the absence of a limitation period, and the law's perceived bias against men.

Protesters articulate a strong stance against Section 69, contending that it not only criminalizes men unfairly but also infantilizes women. The call for rolling back Section 69 is driven by the conviction that the law disproportionately targets men and undermines the principles of justice.

Men's Emotional Struggles: Breaking Stereotypes

In a society that often expects men to embody strength, there's a crucial need to acknowledge and validate men's emotional vulnerabilities. The cultural paradigm, encouraging stoicism in men, clashes with the reality that men, too, experience emotional turmoil.

The delicate balance between fostering strong, respectful men and acknowledging their emotional depth is explored. Societal expectations, while encouraging strength, sometimes overlook the emotional toll on men, necessitating a nuanced approach to masculinity.

Balancing Legal Protection and Individual Rights

While Section 69 aims to protect individuals from broken promises and emotional distress, there is a delicate balance required to prevent its misuse. Striking this balance involves addressing gender biases, promoting awareness, and advocating for reforms that align with principles of justice, equality, and individual rights.

What Needs to Change: Reforming Section 69
  • Fairness for All: Laws should treat everyone equally, regardless of gender.

  • Following the Rules: Laws must follow the country's constitution to be fair.

  • Stopping Misuse: We need to prevent laws from being abused for personal gain.

  • Protecting Consensual Acts: People in consensual relationships shouldn't be punished.

  • Setting Limits: There should be a time limit for making accusations under this law.


Section 69 of Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita remains a contentious provision, evoking debates on its effectiveness and potential dangers. It calls for a nuanced approach that upholds justice, protects individuals from genuine harm, and ensures fair treatment within the legal framework. As discussions around this section persist, the need for careful review and potential reform becomes increasingly evident.

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